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 Guide de Culture Panax Ginseng...

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MessageSujet: Guide de Culture Panax Ginseng...   Ven 29 Jan 2010 - 6:56

Bonjour a tous! Smile
J'ai remarquer qu'il n'y avait aucun guide de culture pour le Panax Ginseng!!!
J'ai donc immédiatement contacter un ami qui habite en chine et qui gagne sa vie avec la culture du Panax Ginseng! Il a fait son possible pour traduire en anglais un guide de culture très très complets a mon avis, donc je me suis dit pourquoi pas vous en faire profiter,il est bien sur axé sur la culture en extérieur..., mais je croi que les chinois ont beaucoup de chose a nous apprendre puisqu'ils le cutive depuis longtemps

Peut être que Ethno pourrais s'en inspiré, pour qu'il y ait un guide de culture flower

Ceci dit je vais essayer retranscrire quelque mots...(dsl aussi qu'il soit en anglais mais bon)

Sowing. Elections to select planting ginseng site preparation environmental requirements without floods, drought, wind and frost place. In the plain areas to farmland cultivated ginseng to be selected high altitude loose fertile soil, good water holding capacity, good drainage of the land. Ginseng Hi-rot areas of forest soil quality, if the soil organic matter content is low, when you need to add organic fertilizer in the soil preparation to make the soil fertile, humus soil properties close to the forest. In terms of general farmland for cultivation land, Previous Crops of corn, millet, beans, wheat, good; also available on the spring planting of corn, beans, summer turning pressure for green manure, are applied into 1 / 3 pig manure decomposition, decomposition fallen leaves, green manure (soybean stalk section), cake, 1 / 3 peat, if the soil is tight and then adding an appropriate amount of fine sand, and 1 / 3 River surface repeatedly turned mixed three times, to make it uniform, and then made Takakuro. In the mixed soil in each square meter should be applied into superphosphate 0.01 ~ 0.025 kilograms in order to increase fertility, or per square meter of 2.5 kg of pig manure into Shi, tenements of the soil 1 kg, soybean meal, calcium superphosphate The 0.5 kilograms, with the stretch of soil mix. Hillside cultivated ginseng, should be selected gradient of 5 ~ 25 degrees Gaozao the gentle slope, plateaus, mountains generally 20 to 30 degrees is appropriate. Slope is too large operation inconvenient, easily lead to soil erosion. Advised to select a thicker humus (13 centimeters) of soil conditions should also be applied into a certain amount of base fertilizer.
After the mountainous selected to conduct venue management. The trees and rocks to clear the grounds outside, and then shrubs, grass land cut paste, even shop on the ground to dry, surrounded by sparking Road, the election no wind days, sunny space, point fire, all turned into red carbon , fire-fighting. Buried with soil or irrigated may be, so that an increase of Phosphate and Potassium, but also killed Pests. A moderate increase of the ground to speed up decomposition.
Mountain planted ginseng has a principle: "wearing a hat, Yao Shu belt, and boots," the purpose of preventing soil erosion. Tanzania by steep slope, leaving a dam which blocks the drainage stopped. Therefore, after the burn site to set the location of the dam row. Generally set at intervals from 2000 to 4000 centimeters a tread, width 100 cm, tread contour of the slope angle with the mountain in 2 ~ 3 degrees is appropriate to stay to do tread tree columns, from a fixed role. When plowing, will tread the location is not turning. Should be stones. Check out debris and other hard to tread next to it. Made dam-shaped stone check and drainage play a role.
Determine the direction of furrow parameters: mainly the use of Fuyang, late-yang, to escape direct sunlight at noon. Direction of stretch of mountain ginseng planted mostly due south. True north direction, if it is a mountain influences to Shaopian the west is good, north and south slope can Shun Shan Zuo Qi, little things that slope gradient, rainfall can be downstream, or oblique Shan Zuo Qi can be Yokoyama, special steep hill , oblique Shan Shun Shan Zuo Qi, the direction of a good set, the nailed-standard piles, spreading lime marking is possible. Universal standard reference furrow lines, measured with the compass or a theodolite. Will be placed in one end of the instrument a good set up, adjust instruments on the degree and the degree of bed requirements in line, from the tube to find par location, so that cross lines with the compass coincide, in the standard point and compass pointing the heavy hammer Insert a standard pile, use rope to connect the two standard test piles, cis-lime Serve on the measurement Shengsa baseline. From the base line shall be two ends to do the vertical end line. Starting from the base line of two endpoints, the direction along the end line, with sizes measured under Measure the stretch of rope or string width (Qikuan and operating channel width) inserted a good benchmark. Line corresponds to the end of the two standard piles, with branding for measuring cable parallel with the center line of the baseline. An area between the two strings of wire shall be ~ a reference Kwai Kwai length, according to land mass and terrain may be.
Preparation; land the first year of tillage land, use the following year, the summer and fall to. Tillage sowing in the next year in July. Transplant sites in September tillage 15 ~ 20 cm deep, inaccessible places employing plane land along the stretch of string with the pick or a shovel, spade turned up on the buckle in the plot of Shen middle, stacked ridge, to weathering. All Paochu roots, and prevent the water filled pit at ease. The whole earth broken. After piling up the middle stretch of fine string before planting, or planted down once again before the soil parameters to remove rocks and rubble, tree roots and the like impurities, Zuo Qi. Planting ginseng in China to take American ginseng planting method, a shed more than Kwai Qikuan 130 ~ 150 cm, 50 cm 2 furrow spacing, operating Road width 200 mm; a shed two separate patches Qikuan 130 ~ 150 cm, the adjacent plot of spacing 50 cm, 200 centimeters wide operating Road; a shed a stretch, Qikuan 120 ~ 150 cm, 150-200 cm wide operating Road, Kwai high was 20 ~ 25 cm.
Should be accompanied by the election to determine the plot of direction. Ginseng bogey strong direct sunlight, in the upper stretch of erection of arbours, the principle to make a strong direct sunlight at noon reference seedlings. Participation cardigan with Takakuro high 20 ~ 33 cm; Qikuan subject to operational convenience, usually 100 to 130 cm; furrow length is not limited to, operating Road width of 130 ~ 300 cm, should be able to maintain operating convenience and ventilation shall prevail . Mountain planted ginseng, Chinese ginseng is a traditional planting method in Changbai Mountain, the size Xing'an. In 1998, the northeast, south in the serious floods and deforestation, directly related, will no longer be planted mountain ginseng, should pay attention to soil and water conservation.
2. Propagation by seed propagation methods, nursery and then transplanting the first multi-adopted by artificial cultivation.
Breeding: There are spring, summer sowing and autumn sowing. In mid-March spring planting, autumn sowing in late October, the seeds used for germination under specific circumstances can be handled after the seeding or planting. After seed germination will be planting spring; early June (Grain in Ear ago) dry seeds can be sown every other year; Summer in late July to late August that year collecting water, the seeds can be sown now increasingly adopted this approach. Autumn sowing seed germination also need to deal with.
Germination of a variety of treatment methods, so that the seeds at the appropriate temperature and humidity to complete its ripening stage of the embryo to speed up the germination. Two methods are presented as follows:
Chi-ching will be flooding the seeds for 48 hours to make it fully water-absorbent, take out twice as wet sand (fine sand and humus on the evenly divided, humidity about 35%, to hand into a group, spread out suitable landing) mix well , into pot, and placing 18 ~ 20 ℃ temperature, and keep moist state, after 2 ~ 3 months, seeds, most of cracks can begin planting. If not planted immediately should be frozen or put the kiln in the winter buried in soil in outdoor storage, in order to suppress the elongation of buds.
Outdoor Germination: Select Xiangyang leeward, Gaozao, good drainage of the site, dug 23 ~ 33 cm deep, into a bottomless wood frame (or brick to do box), frame size determined according to the number of seeds. Twice the amount of seeds Hunban mix master (1 / 3 of fine sand, 2 / 3 humus mixture and sprinkling their hands into the wet to the group, landing the extent of spread, and then mixed with the seeds) loaded human pit , the above covered with 6 cm or so, at ease. Night and rain covered with a straw mat, opened to the sun during the day and sunny every 1 to 2 weeks mix turned out a second, adjust the water, and then loaded into the pit, after 2 to 3 months, the seeds that gap.
High temperature region, in early June in the dry direct seeding trial, the kinds of after-ripening stage embryo after sowing completed in the following year in the spring emergence. In practice, dealing with imperfect seed germination, when although not Emergence, emergence the following year may also be, that is for this reason.
Water, seed sowing, about 7 to August collected the seeds, wash away the flesh can be planted. Seeds can also be collected and stored in wet sand in succession, the concentration of seeding. This can be done under natural conditions so that the embryo after-ripening stage, Yi-Chun emergence.
Sowing methods on-demand, drilling, sowing. Demand that the pressure by 3 cm from the hole, put a seed, this method makes ginseng seedlings grow evenly, saving seeds, but a lot of work; sow the seed costs, the provincial workers; drilling-between. At present, many used to sow. When to sow with wooden Qimian scraping into 5 ~ 6 cm deep grooves, thrown into the seed, the original overlying level, to keep the soil moist. If the emergence the following year, shall Gallant layer, the pressure on the 3 ~ 6 cm. Seeds per square meter 0.03 ~ 0.05 kg,
Transplanting: seedling growth of 2 to 4 years for transplant, most people in the three years of transplanting. If soil fertility is not high, but also once again transplanted. In spring and autumn can be transplanted now to take our production areas to cultivate seedlings for transplanting two parameters, first, to make full use of seedlings of soil moisture in the fertilizer and light, which will help the growth of ginseng seedlings. Biennial seedlings with high survival rate of participation, because participation Miao small, easy to Huanmiao, reproductive growth period by one year, ginseng root is conducive to weight gain. Generally use more Qiuzai, Qiuzai carried out in October. Ginseng seedlings planted since the first day out, planting the number of how many cases, long-distance reference, use moss packaging. Select Buds hypertrophy, pulp foot, Lo head integrity, to be a complete reference robust seedlings. Ginseng seedlings used to disinfect and 150 units of anti-mycin, 120 times as Bordeaux mixture and other liquid soaking 5 to 10 minutes, do not soak buds, remove a little dry, with transplant. In order to facilitate field management, according to seedling size parameters were divided into three to seven and so on, is generally divided into three classes. Participation white Gai Yan Miao use to prevent the wind and sun. Participation Qimian planted with scraper (length 26 cm, width 16 cm, the following are Boren, back was wooden comb-shaped) scraping groove, ditch formation or slope. Ginseng seedlings will then head to the stretch of reed-side swing absorption, with cis-parameter pressure casing scraper to be a good reference, re-covering soil. Plummeted to the last line should be Daozai, that is, head to the stretch of reed end, the Senate shall be relative. End Papingqimian planted, so that stretch of the slightly higher for drainage, cover the plant stalks Can Ye, and covers soil 3-6 cm. Transplanting Zhuxing Ju, reference number and follow-Miao Zhu Shi-depth, seedling size parameters should be different.
3. Field management of soil after thawing, when the buds have not yet removed germination cold grass, loosen the soil with a rake in deep, deep in order not to hurt the roots of degrees. Subsequent scarification to be shallow, loosen the soil 3 to 4 times a year. After the removal of cold things, to timely and comprehensive pharmacy right Qimian disinfection, which is a Seedlings, disease prevention, an increase of effective measures. In particular, as well as disease Yan transplanted to the land issue, on the cold-proof material before and after the next cold with disabilities, the application 50% carbendazim 1000 times, 1% copper sulfate 100 ml / l, Polyoxin or Zineb 500 times of, mancozeb 1000 times to bed, the Senate, and operation of highways and so on shelf-round disinfection. Dosage in order to penetrate the bed 1 ~ 2 cm is appropriate, then loosen the soil, the liquid infiltration territories. Ginseng top drug unearthed, played sterilization, Seedlings, disease prevention role. After the first loosen the soil, or no seedling emergence, when just ride arbours, sheds Qian Yan Gao 100 ~ 130 cm, after the canopy high 66 ~ 100 cm, which is called Cha Du mouth, generally 26 to 33 centimeters. Follow-up straw mat above, reed curtains, plates, can also be used reed. Tree of translucent materials such as leaking compiled a simple curtain, curtain wide and 200 to 250 cm, transmittance 30%. Double penetration can be used Daping shed, refers to translucent soaking rain. After the exhibition leaves one, simple leaves city Qimian cover 3 to 5 cm, in order to maintain soil moisture, prevent soil compaction and rain erosion, and reduce disease.
Proper watering when soil drought, particularly in low rainfall areas of farmland planted more should pay attention to watering parameters. To loosen the soil after watering, the rainy season to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water.
In addition to stay in farming, other land in addition to inflorescence buds pinch period to increase the production of ginseng reported. Pinch method: Rotary ginseng stem and the left hand, right hand pinch, do not dead lift and pull, Pashang plants, pinch off the buds dried in the sun, making ginseng tea, ginseng flower essence or extract the saponins. In general, leaving only five years of Seed.
The hot summer season, with hardwood sticks inserted in the furrow around the eaves, blocking direct light to avoid being sun ginseng leaf scorch and die early defoliation. Simple screens latter line of argument plot of corn as well, but also can play a role in shade. Ginseng has ultra-light, long in the Qimian outside four or five years Johnson seedlings, large plants, but also increasingly light, so the roots of earth up, and to prevent wind, rain, lodging. Can also pull to prevent the ultra-light outside the inverted parameters.
Fall Ginseng Management: late July to early August, after another ripe fruit. Collected twice, when the fruit red, the next seeds or cut pedicel, Qubing seeds and stem, rub off flesh, the seeds pour clean water for washing, bleaching to the pulp and shriveled grain, remove and submerged in the bottom of the full seed , on the gallery dry or dried, when the seed moisture content dropped to about 15% of collections. Hunban with the sand packed in a certain container, buried in a cool place, wet rain. Remove the second year of germination, or the possession of direct seeding is not sand. Ginseng wither in autumn, after Qimian winter with grass cover, curtain removal or not demolition Jieke.
Winter Field Management:
(1) The withdrawal of snow on the snow and winter after the general panels shed, curtain shelf to be removed to, or engage in open, so that stretch of the winter snow fall, played the role of cold insulation. In winter the snow came from a Qimian to manual on the snow, in particular, the reference is not dismantling studio cardigan, sure to work on humanitarian ground snow cover are summarized into Qimian uniform in thickness over 15 cm.
Frozen or the end of autumn to the spring thaw when the snow fell Qimian, melting into the snow, the easier to infiltrate Qinei, so ginseng susceptible, rotten buds, lousy root and break the stomach must be removed in time for this snow. Curtain no less than the reference shelf, when the snow thickness of 10 cm above, easily crushed reference shelf should also be removed in time to.
(2) to prevent peach water 3 to 4 months a year, the snow begins to melt, often due to poorly or blockage of drainage ditches dug, snow Liu Buchu go, disconnect the water supply caused by local water immersion Qinei, flow easily washed out of local participation furrow, or from Qimian diffuse before, victims of local ginseng susceptible to disease, bad bud, lousy root, it must do preventive work. When the snow melts, to send someone check to clear the water in places, leads to peach water.
(3) prevention of slow-yang freezing temperatures in early winter and early spring changes, especially to sunny places and the draft, white non-thaw freezing at night, a cold can easily cause one of the root subjected to freeze-thaw-type parameter damage, commonly known as slow-yang and cold, This 10000 should not be taken lightly, we must prepare without a risk of 100, so the cold soil or cold objects, we must meet the standard, with clean-up drains, the Qimian more to cover a layer of soil or some curtains to prevent aid Yang frost damage.
4. Pest
(1) damping-off, also known as soil pinch disease pathogen is a fungi Fungi. The disease occurs in seedling leaf period of one to three years re-ginseng disease. Ginseng seedlings suffer under the table in the soil wet and dry soil at the junction of stem brown ring constriction, seedling Zhedao death.
Control methods: ① 1 ~ 2 months before sowing, each 80 square meters with 120 ml chloropicrin fumigation of soil. Make beds, each square meter facilities into the 50% Carbendazim WP 0.01 ~ 0.015 kg, mixed with 3-5 cm depth of soil were carried out in soil fumigation, and then planting. With the enemy if it can be loose or metalaxyl mix can be Kaneharu caused by Pythium diseases broken down. Or per 100 kg seeds with 50% Thiram WP 0.4 to 0.8 kilograms and 70% soil bacteria elimination WP 0.4 to 0.7 kilograms, after mixing seed dressing, or mix with 40% kinds of pairs of WP 0.5 kilograms seed dressing. ② seedbed found that timely removal of diseased plants, and watering the bed with the pharmaceutical to prevent the spread.
(2) The spot is a fungal pathogen in a semi-known bacteria. The disease primarily affecting leaves, stems and fruits red when ripe can also be affected. Produce irregular-shaped leaves or near-circular brown lesions, and in severe early leaf shedding. Red ripe fruit become black withered after the victims, seeds are varying degrees of black.
Control methods: ① do Qing Yuan, in time to clear and burn pathogens. ② the early leaf with Polyoxin 100 ~ 200 units, leaf and particularly those that can be sprayed into the rainy season 1:1:120 Bordeaux mixture, 50% Iprodione 500 ~ 800 times of 400 times of mold or imidazole, etc. should used interchangeably. ③ incidence of a serious plot, then with 100 units of Polyoxin or 1% copper sulfate solution on the parameters Kwai Road and the operating parameters to conduct a comprehensive pro-disinfection.
(3) The disease, also known as "Tala handkerchief," is a pathogenic fungus in a kind of algae-like bacteria. The disease mainly damaged leaves and roots can also be affected. Diseased leaves showed dark green Shuizi Zhuang. After the soft pale brown root rot victim-like, easy to peel the root bark, yellow with irregular patterns of internal organization. Incidence of heavy rainy season.
Control methods; Discovery Center strain immediately pulled out and with copper ammonium mixture Door: (1:1:1500), 1% copper sulfate or 70% Fenaminosulf 500 times of the patients and disinfection points and the surrounding soil to prevent the spread. Strengthen field management and timely drainage during the rainy season. 1:1:120 Bordeaux mixture spray in the early stages, 40% or 58% Fosetyl-Al 300 times of 1000 times metalaxyl mancozeb, or poured pouring plants and soil in the bottom surface, preferably after heavy rain spray, 7 ~ 10 days 1 for 2 ~ 3 times.
(4) The rust fungi rot pathogen is a kind of imperfect fungi. The disease primarily affecting the roots and buds, crown Department can also be affected. The root lesion rusty red, gradually expanded, resulting in root rot.
Control methods: Strengthening the cultivation and management, the Conference on Participation select disease-free plants to avoid the wound, using 200 ml / l Baptist roots for 10 minutes, or 5% Carbendazim 500 times of ginseng roots soaked for 15 minutes per square meter planted ago with carbendazim 0.01-0.015 kg to furrow soil sterilization, the soil should fully overturned, even after planting ginseng. Timely and drainage during the rainy season and promptly pulling out the death strain, treatment with lime disease cave. Onset phase of 50% Carbendazim or 50% of the thiophanate-methyl 500 times of watering hole disease. Gramineae crop rotation with a certain degree of preventive effect.
(5), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogen is a fungi Ascomycetes. Harm the roots of the disease, the victim only after the root rotting skin, both inside and outside the brown rat feces-shaped sclerotia.
Prevention Methods: 50% of the procymidone or Iprodione wettable powder, by seed weight of 0.1% ~ 0.3% seed dressing, or the use of such agents and 40% Dimethachlon 500 times of watering. Found that timely removal of diseased plants, use lime or 1% - 5% milk of lime disease disinfection points.
(6) The root rot pathogen is a fungi Fungi. Harm the roots of the disease, victims of the root where gray and black wet rot.
Control methods: drainage during the rainy season in time to avoid the humidity is too large. When planted per square meter with 50% carbendazim, 70% of the soil bacteria consumption or 50% Thiram on soil, combined with a view to using the above-mentioned pharmaceutical onset times of irrigation are also 500 control effect.
(7) grubs also known as "white, silkworm", is a coleopteran beetle Division. With larvae, biting ginseng seedlings or fresh ginseng root Tsui, killing off seedlings, uprooting empty grave damage. Often during the day or near the rhizosphere of damaged trees or minus 3 ~ 6 cm found.
(Cool cutworms also known as "De Can," "Wu Di Can", etc., belong to Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, mainly tigers and Agrotis segetum. With larvae, biting roots Department. Bai often the victims of rhizosphere strains found in or near the table from top to bottom.
(9) mole cricket, also known as "dog", "Lala mantis" and so on, belong to Orthoptera mole cricket section, mainly in North China and the African mole cricket mole cricket two kinds. Adult or nymph biting seedlings and in the soil to do the tunnel, the victim off at Chang Cheng Miao Ma filamentous.
(10), also known as lily beetle insect belongs to Coleoptera beetle Branch, mainly Agriotes wireworms two kinds of insects and groove. Larvae damage the roots of seedlings.
Soil insect control methods for these four categories is basically the same:
① application of manure to the full maturity, it is best to use high-temperature compost.
② light trap and kill adults. In the field with the black light or lantern or light to trap and kill, lamp placed Sheng worm containers, built right amount of water, the water can engage in a little kerosene.
③ 75% Phoxim EC in accordance with the amount of 0.1% seed seed dressing.
④ field phase took place with 90% Trichlorfon 1000 times or 75% of the Phoxim EC 700% times of watering.
⑤ bait trap and kill. 25 grams of chlorine breast fragrant oil fry 5 kg, plus adequate water, dubbed bait, on the evening of scatter in the field or Qimian trap.
5, harvesting and processing
General cultivation six years (six students) harvest processing, there are more than six years before harvest. In mid-September to mid-October to take control, when digging to prevent the trauma, pluck ginseng root into the ground after stem sacks or baskets and sent back to processing. To ginseng by processing a variety of quality requirements with the selected category.
(1) red pulp election is not soft enough, complete, no lesion of the parameters root, cleaned it, put the steamer steamed 2 ~ 3 hours, Guangwu Huan fire after the fire. A large processing units have been steam steam parameters and large quantities, progress quickly. Take dried or dried, the drying process was cut off the head and branch root reed lower segment. Cut the branches of the root bundles dried, namely, red ginseng to be. Bundle fragmentation of Xiaomao to be steamed before drying is also red, that is, to be bent.
(2) Sugar reference to the root soft enough ginseng root scrub grout clean, put smoked box and ignited sulfur smoked 10 ~ 12 hours. After the head down and swing out into the basket in place in boiling water for 15 minutes in hot, ginseng roots soften my heart out again when the micro-hard-drying and a half hours. Participation reported flat on the board, with the row of needles rolling up, rolling over the parameters body. Then bone parameters causes of cis-cis-needle bottom-up rolling a few needles, but does not penetrate. After rolling out the first argument, tail inwards, flat placed on the cylinder, wood should be so full. Top put a curtain, with stones suppressed. Sugar stay up continuously provoking shiny and there when still hot wire into the bottles and ginseng root cylinder until 10-12 hours out of cylinder. Placed in reference to a non-tacky drying intraday for the second row of pins when the irrigation of sugar. France, after filling three times so dry or to dry.
Boil sugar Method: The first irrigation of sugar, 0.5 kilograms of sugar parameters required 0.65 kilograms, 0.5 kilograms of sugar water, 0.15 kilograms. Should first set fire to the pot of water, add sugar and then light a fire, while boil while stirring, you can stay up the standard required. The second irrigation of sugar, 1. 5 kg ginseng, 0.5 kg sugar, 100 grams of water to add for the first time in Zaiao syrup. The second irrigation of sugar syrup with a second, you can boil open.
(3) Sun-dried ginseng to health under the Health and drying sub-sun and full sun to health. Required under the Health and drying, the election body of a short illness scars; full sun to health, to be elected body of large, well-shaped to be the whole of the parameters. In addition to health to stay under the sun, and a large van main root, the rest all get rid of. All shall be required under the Health and drying is not only the small owners to get rid of. After the next to wash the soil, disease scar expansion Shinai Guajing, put smoked box using sulfur smoked 10 ~ 12 hours to dry out, or can be dried.
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Date d'inscription : 15/10/2009

MessageSujet: Re: Guide de Culture Panax Ginseng...   Ven 29 Jan 2010 - 13:06

heu, je doit t'avouer que j'ai pas lu tous ce qui été en angalis mais ca a l'air très interressant ^^"
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